frolicsome (adj.) Look up frolicsome at
1690s, from frolic + -some (1).
from (prep., adv.) Look up from at
Old English fram, preposition denoting departure or movement away in time or space, from Proto-Germanic *fra "forward, away from" (source also of Old Saxon, Old High German, Gothic fram "from, away," Old Norse fra "from," fram "forward"), from PIE *pro-mo-, suffixed form of *pro (see pro-); the Germanic sense of "moving away" apparently evolved from the notion of "forward motion." It is related to Old English fram "forward; bold; strong," and fremian "promote, accomplish" (see frame (v.)).
fromage (n.) Look up fromage at
French for "cheese," from French fromage, originally formage (13c.), from Medieval Latin formaticum (source also of Italian formaggio), properly "anything made in a form," from Latin forma "shape, form, mold" (see form (v.)). Papias the Lombard (11c.) has caseus vulgo formaticum.
fromward (adv.) Look up fromward at
(obsolete), late Old English framweardes, from framweard (adj.) "about to depart; doomed to die; with back turned;" opposed to toweard (see toward)); from from + -ward, and compare froward. As a preposition from c. 1200.
frond (n.) Look up frond at
1785, from Latin frons (genitive frondis) "leafy branch, green bough, foliage." Adopted by Linnæus for the leaf-like organs of ferns, palms, etc., as a word distinct from folium. Later given a more precise meaning in botany.
Fronde (n.) Look up Fronde at
1798, from French fronde (14c.), "sling," from Old French fonde "sling, catapult," from Latin funda "a sling; dragnet, casting-net," a word of unknown origin. It was the name given to the party which rose against Mazarin and the court during the minority of Louis XIV, supposedly from the use of stone-casting slings to attack property of their opponents, or from their opponents' contemptuous comparison of them to the slingshot-armed street boys of Paris. Hence the name sometimes was used figuratively for "violent political opposition." Related: Frondeur.
frons (n.) Look up frons at
"forehead," from Latin frons (see front (n.)).
front (n.) Look up front at
late 13c., "forehead," from Old French front "forehead, brow" (12c.), from Latin frontem (nominative frons) "forehead, brow, front; countenance, expression (especially as an indicator of truthfulness or shame); facade of a building, forepart; external appearance; vanguard, front rank," a word of "no plausible etymology" (de Vaan). Perhaps literally "that which projects," from PIE *bhront-, from root *bhren- "to project, stand out" (see brink). Or from PIE *ser- (4), "base of prepositions and preverbs with the basic meaning 'above, over, up, upper'" [Watkins, not in Pokorny].

Sense "foremost part of anything" emerged in the English word mid-14c.; sense of "the face as expressive of temper or character" is from late 14c. (hence frontless "shameless," c. 1600). The military sense of "foremost part of an army" (mid-14c.) led to the meaning "field of operations in contact with the enemy" (1660s); home front is from 1919. Meaning "organized body of political forces" is from 1926. Sense of "public facade" is from 1891; that of "something serving as a cover for illegal activities" is from 1905. Adverbial phrase in front is from 1610s. Meteorological sense first recorded 1921.
front (v.) Look up front at
1520s, "have the face toward," from Middle French fronter, from Old French front (see front (n.)). Meaning "meet face-to-face" is from 1580s. Meaning "serve as a public facade for" is from 1932. Related: Fronted; fronting.
front (adj.) Look up front at
"relating to the front," 1610s, from front (n.). Front yard first attested 1767; front door is from 1807. The newspaper front page is attested from 1892; as an adjective in reference to sensational news, 1907.
front-line (n.) Look up front-line at
also frontline, 1842 in the military sense, from front (adj.) (1520s, from front (n.)) + line (n.). As an adjective from 1915.
front-runner (n.) Look up front-runner at
also frontrunner, of political candidates, 1908, American English, a metaphor from horse racing (where it is used by 1901 of a horse that runs best while in the lead).
frontage (n.) Look up frontage at
1620s, from front (n.) + -age.
frontal (adj.) Look up frontal at
"being in front," 1650s, of the forehead; 1971 with reference to the naked standing body; from Modern Latin frontalis, from front-, stem of Latin frons "brow, forehead" (see front (n.)). In some uses probably from front (n.) + adjectival suffix -al (1).
frontier (n.) Look up frontier at
c. 1400, frowntere, "front line of an army;" early 15c., fronture, "borderland, part of a country which faces another," from Old French frontiere "boundary-line of a country," also "frontier fortress; front rank of an army" (13c.), noun use of adjective frontier "facing, neighboring," from front "brow" (see front (n.)). In reference to North America, "part of the country which is at the edge of its settled regions" from 1670s. Later it was given a specific sense:
What is the frontier? ... In the census reports it is treated as the margin of that settlement which has a density of two or more to the square mile. [F.J. Turner, "The Frontier in American History," 1920]
frontiersman (n.) Look up frontiersman at
1814, American English, from genitive of frontier + man (n.). Earlier was frontierman (1782).
frontispiece (n.) Look up frontispiece at
1590s, "decorated entrance of a building," from Middle French frontispice (16c.), which is probably from Italian frontespizio and Medieval Latin frontispicium "facade," originally "a view of the forehead, judgment of character through facial features," from Latin frons (genitive frontis) "forehead" (see front (n.)) + specere "to look at" (see scope (n.1)). Sense of "illustration facing a book's title page" first recorded 1680s. The English spelling alteration apparently is from confusion with unrelated piece (n.).
frontlet (n.) Look up frontlet at
"headband," late 15c., from Old French frontelet, diminutive of frontel "forehead, front of a helmet, hairband" (Modern French fronteau), from Late Latin frontale "an ornament for the forehead," from frons "forehead; front" (see front (n.)).
frore (adj.) Look up frore at
"frosty, frozen," archaic (but found in poetry as late as Keats), c. 1200, from Old English froren, past participle of freosan (see freeze (v.)). Related: Froren, which would be the title of the Anglo-Saxon version of Disney's movie.
frosh (n.) Look up frosh at
student colloquial shortening and alteration of freshman, attested from 1908, "perh. under influence of German frosch frog, (dial.) grammar-school pupil" [OED].
frost (n.) Look up frost at
Old English forst, frost "frost, a freezing, frozen precipitation, extreme cold," from Proto-Germanic *frustaz- "frost" (source also of Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old High German frost, Middle Dutch and Dutch vorst), related to freosan "to freeze," from suffixed form of PIE *preus- "to freeze; burn" (see freeze (v.)). Both forms of the word were common in English till late 15c.; the triumph of frost may be due to its similarity to the forms in other Germanic languages. A black frost (late 14c.) is one which kills plants (turns them black) but is not accompanied by visible frozen dew.
frost (v.) Look up frost at
1630s, "to cover with frost," from frost (n.). Intransitive sense of "to freeze" is from 1807. Related: Frosted; frosting.
frost-bite (n.) Look up frost-bite at
also frostbite, 1813, back-formation from frost-bitten (1590s); see frost (n.) + bite (v.). A verb frost-bite is recorded from 1610s. Related: Frost-bit.
frostbitten (adj.) Look up frostbitten at
also frost-bitten, 1550s, from frost (n.) + bitten.
frosted (adj.) Look up frosted at
1640s, of hair, "turning white;" 1680s, of glass, "having a rough and unpolished surface;" 1734 in cookery, "covered with something (sugar, icing) resembling frost," past participle adjective from frost (v.).
frosting (n.) Look up frosting at
1610s as an action; 1756 as a substance; verbal noun from frost (v.). Specific meaning "cake icing" is by 1832, so called from its appearance.
frosty (adj.) Look up frosty at
Old English forstig, fyrstig "as cold as frost;" see frost (n.) + -y (2). Figurative use from late 14c. Related: Frostily; frostiness. Similar formation in Dutch vorstig, German frostig.
froth (n.) Look up froth at
c. 1300, from an unrecorded Old English word, or else from Old Norse froða "froth," from Proto-Germanic *freuth- "froth" (source also of Swedish fradga, Danish fraade). Old English had afreoðan "to froth," from the same root. The modern verb is late 14c., from the noun. Related: Frothed; frothing.
frothy (adj.) Look up frothy at
1530s, "full of foam," from froth + -y (2). Meaning "vain, light, insubstantial" is from 1590s. Related: Frothiness.
frottage (n.) Look up frottage at
1933 as the name of a sexual perversion, from French frottage "rubbing, friction," from frotter "to rub," from Old French froter "to rub, wipe; beat, thrash" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *frictare, frequentative of Latin fricare "to rub" (see friction). As a paraphilia, it is known now as frotteurism.
frou-frou (n.) Look up frou-frou at
1870, "a rustling," from French (19c.), possibly imitative of the rustling of a dress. The word was popularized in English by a French play translated and given that name. Meaning "fussy details" is from 1876.
frounce (v.) Look up frounce at
c. 1300, "to gather in folds," from Old French froncir, froncier "to pleat, fold; purse; crease, wrinkle," from fronce (n.), which is of unknown origin. Perhaps it is somehow from Latin frons "forehead," on the notion of frowning. Related: Frounced; frouncing.
frow (n.) Look up frow at
"Dutchwoman," late 14c., from Middle Dutch vrouwe (Dutch vrouw), cognate with German Frau (see frau).
froward (adv.) Look up froward at
12c., froward, fraward "turned against, perverse, disobedient; peevish, petulant; adverse, difficult," as a preposition, "away from," the Northern form of Old English fromweard (see fromward), with Old Norse fra (see fro) in place of English from. Opposite of toward, it renders Latin pervertus in early translations of the Psalms, and also meant "about to depart, departing," and "doomed to die." Related: Frowardly; frowardness.
frown (v.) Look up frown at
"contract the brows as an expression of displeasure," late 14c., from Old French frognier "to frown or scowl, snort, turn up one's nose" (preserved in Modern French refrogner), related to froigne "scowling look," probably from Gaulish *frogna "nostril" (compare Welsh ffroen "nose"), with a sense of "snort," or perhaps "haughty grimace." Figurative transitive sense "look with displeasure" is from 1570s. Related: Frowned; frowning.
frown (n.) Look up frown at
1580s, from frown (v.).
frowsty (adj.) Look up frowsty at
"having an unpleasant smell," 1865, of unknown origin; perhaps related to Old French frouste "ruinous, decayed," or to Old English þroh "rancid;" both of which also are of uncertain origin. Also compare frowzy.
frowzy (adj.) Look up frowzy at
also frowsy, 1680s, possibly related to dialectal frowsty (q.v.).
frozen (adj.) Look up frozen at
mid-14c., "congealed by cold; turned to or covered with ice," past participle adjective from freeze (v.). Figurative use is from 1570s. Of assets, bank accounts, etc., from 1922.
fructify (v.) Look up fructify at
mid-14c., "bear fruit," from Old French fructifiier "bear fruit, grow, develop" (12c.), from Late Latin fructificare "bear fruit," from Latin fructus "fruit, crops; profit, enjoyment" (see fruit) + root of facere "to make, do" (see factitious). Transitive use from 1580s. Related: Fructified; fructifying; fructification.
fructose (n.) Look up fructose at
sugar found in fruit, 1857, coined in English from Latin fructus "fruit" (see fruit) + chemical suffix -ose (2).
frug (n.) Look up frug at
popular U.S. dance derived from the Twist, 1964, of unknown origin.
frugal (adj.) Look up frugal at
"economical in use," 1590s, from Middle French frugal, from Latin frugalis, from undeclined adjective frugi "useful, proper, worthy, honest; temperate, economical," originally dative of frux (plural fruges) "fruit, produce," figuratively "value, result, success," related to fructus (see fruit), from PIE *bhrug- "agricultural produce," also "to enjoy." Sense evolved in Latin from "useful" to "profitable" to "economical." Related: Frugally.
frugality (n.) Look up frugality at
1530s, "economy, thriftiness," from Middle French frugalité (14c.), from Latin frugalitatem (nominative frugalitas) "thriftiness, temperance, frugality," from frugalis (see frugal).
frugivorous (adj.) Look up frugivorous at
"feeding on fruits," 1833, from Latin frugi-, stem of frux "fruit, produce" (see frugal) + -vorous.
fruit (n.) Look up fruit at
late 12c., "any vegetable product useful to humans or animals," from Old French fruit "fruit, fruit eaten as dessert; harvest; virtuous action" (12c.), from Latin fructus "an enjoyment, delight, satisfaction; proceeds, produce, fruit, crops," from frug-, stem of frui "to use, enjoy," from suffixed form of PIE *bhrug- "agricultural produce," also "to enjoy" (see brook (v.)). The Latin word also is the source of Spanish fruto, Italian frutto, German Frucht, Swedish frukt-.

Originally in English meaning all products of the soil (vegetables, nuts, grain, acorns); modern narrower sense is from early 13c. Also "income from agricultural produce, revenue or profits from the soil" (mid-14c.), hence, "profit," the classical sense preserved in fruits of (one's) labor. Meaning "offspring, progeny, child" is from mid-13c.; that of "any consequence, outcome, or result" is from late 14c. Meaning "odd person, eccentric" is from 1910; that of "male homosexual" is from 1935, underworld slang. The term also is noted in 1931 as tramp slang for "a girl or woman willing to oblige," probably from the fact of being "easy picking." Fruit salad recorded from 1861; fruit-cocktail from 1900; fruit-bat by 1869.
fruitcake (n.) Look up fruitcake at
also fruit-cake, 1838 in the literal sense "a rich, sweet cake containing fruit," from fruit + cake (n.). Slang meaning "lunatic person" is first attested 1952.
fruitful (adj.) Look up fruitful at
c. 1300, of trees, from fruit + -ful. Related: Fruitfully; fruitfulness. Of animals or persons from early 16c.; of immaterial things from 1530s.
fruition (n.) Look up fruition at
early 15c., "act of enjoying," from Old French fruition and directly from Late Latin fruitionem (nominative fruitio) "enjoyment," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin frui "to use, enjoy" (see fruit). Sense of "act or state of bearing fruit," resisted by dictionary editors, is attested by 1885, from association with fruit (n.); figuratively in this sense from 1889.
fruitless (adj.) Look up fruitless at
mid-14c., "unprofitable," from fruit + -less. Meaning "barren, sterile" is from 1510s. Related: Fruitlessly; fruitlessness.